Elsewhere aboard Arizona, Ensign H.D. Davison had just sent the messenger of the watch to make the 8 o’clock reports to the captain.
“Then I heard a dive bomber attack from overhead,” Davison said. “I looked through my spyglass and saw the red dots on the wings. That made me wonder, but I still couldn’t believe it until I saw some bombs falling.”
The attack had begun.
According to the CINCPAC report: “At 0755, Japanese dive bombers appeared over Hickam Field and Ford Island, and, bare seconds later, enemy torpedo planes and dive bombers swung in from various sectors to concentrate their attack on the heavy ships moored in Pearl Harbor. An estimated 18 planes engaged in the attack on Hickam Field while approximately 9 dive bombers from out of the northeast bombed and strafed the Naval Air Station, concentrating particularly on Hangar No. 6 and the planes parked in that vicinity.”
Amidst the chaos and confusion, CINCPAC sent a message to the rest of the U.S. Navy: “AIR RAID ON PEAR HARBOR X THIS IS NOT DRILL!” The missing “L” in Pearl makes apparent the stress felt by the command during the onslaught.
An order familiar to all Sailors who’ve ever been to sea was heard booming through each ship in the Hawaiian harbor—“General quarters, general quarters. All hands man your battle stations.”
Surrounding airfields were also targeted in tandem with the attack on Pearl. Japanese pilots bombed and strafed the Navy air bases at Ford Island and Kaneohe Bay, the Marine airfield at Ewa and the Army Air Corps fields at Bellows, Wheeler and Hickam.
Within the first minutes of the attack seven of the eight battleships adjacent to Ford Island had taken bomb and/or torpedo hits. USS Pennsylvania (BB 38) was in dry dock at the yard. USS West Virginia (BB 48), USS Oklahoma (BB 37) and USS Arizona all sank quickly, while USS California (BB 44), USS Maryland (BB 46), USS Tennessee (BB 43) and USS Nevada (BB 36) suffered varying degrees of damage. Former battleship USS Utah (BB 41), which had been converted to a radio-controlled target ship (AG 16), was also sunk.
Nevada managed to get underway despite a torpedo hit on her port bow. From nearly the start of the attack until about 8:30 a.m., she fought back.
“Fire from [our] machine guns was almost continuous until 0820 when the attack slackened somewhat,” said Capt. F.W. Scanland, her commanding officer.
Seizing the chance to get to sea, Nevada attempted to sail down the channel. However, before she could escape the harbor, a second round of aircraft appeared. Nevada being an easy target, the Japanese aviators tried to finish her off and sink her in the middle of the channel—and thereby stop other ships from entering or leaving, too. But Nevada beached herself instead at Hospital Point.
“Officers and members of the crew vary in their accounts of the number of enemy planes seen brought down by gun fire. It is probable that at least five planes were destroyed in the vicinity of the Nevada,” Scanland wrote in his action report.
Several other ships also managed to clear the area.
Probably the worst hit of all was the Arizona. Early on, a bomb from a dive bomber penetrated into her 14-inch powder magazine and exploded, resulting in a ravaging fire.
“The oil fire sent up a great cloud of smoke and interfered with antiaircraft fire. The fire itself endangered the Tennessee, in the adjacent berth,” said the CINCPAC report.
Ensign Jim Miller said in his own report, “Most of the men who were burned were unrecognizable. Shortly after the stretcher cases had been removed to the Solace motor launch, the first lieutenant ordered abandon ship. All of our guns had ceased firing; the main, forecastle, and boat decks were burning; smoke obstructed a view of the foremast and the forward part of the ship. All officers’ quarters aft were flooded and the quarterdeck forward was awash.
“Men found the rafts difficult to paddle, and most of them crawled aboard motor launches or started swimming toward Ford Island. […] We picked up quite a few more men who were swimming toward the island. We made the officers’ landing at Ford Island, and all hands went ashore except the boat crew, Ensign Field, and the First Lieutenant.
“I was told to remain in charge of the men on Ford Island. We went to the air raid shelter at the northeastern corner of the island. All injured men were sent to the air station hospital as fast as possible. The rest remained in the air raid shelter until the raid was clear.”
The raid ended just under two hours after it began, and the toll was steep. Aircraft losses were 188 destroyed and 159 damaged, the majority hit before they had a chance to take off. American dead numbered 2,403. There were 1,178 military and civilian wounded.
Despite these heavy losses, the raid was almost a tactical failure for the Japanese. Two of the three aircraft carriers homeported at Pearl Harbor – Enterprise (CV 6) and Lexington (CV 2) — were out to sea and the third, Saratoga (CV 3), was undergoing an overhaul at Bremerton, Washington.
The Japanese didn’t damage the shore-side facilities or fuel depots at the Pearl Harbor Naval Base, either, which played an important role in the Allied victory in World War II.
Also, all but three of the ships sunk or damaged – Arizona, Oklahoma, and Utah — were later repaired and went on to fight against the Japanese and Germany.
Arguably the greatest outcome of this tragedy was the unity it inspired in the nation. It motivated the American people to wholeheartedly commit to victory in the Second World War.