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The Official Magazine of the U.S. Submarine Force

Vice Adm. John M. Richardson
Commander, Submarine Forces
Commander, Submarine Force, Atlantic

Rear Adm. James F. Caldwell
Deputy Commander, Submarine Forces
Commander, Submarine Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet

Mr. Chuck Werchado
Executive Director, Commander, Submarine Forces

Rear Adm. Michael J. Connor
Director, Submarine Warfare

Master Chief Petty Officer Kirk Saunders
COMSUBLANT Force Master Chief

Master Chief Petty Officer David Lynch
COMSUBPAC Force Master Chief

Cmdr. Kyung Choi
COMSUBLANT Public Affairs Officer

Cmdr. Christy Hagen
COMSUBPAC Public Affairs Officer

Lt. Cmdr. John T. Gonser
Military Editor

John Patrick
Senior Editor

Olivia Logan
Managing Editor

Jeff Kendrick, Alion Science and Technology
Design & Layout

Deepa Shukla, Alion Science and Technology

Website Design

UNDERSEA WARFARE is the professional magazine of the undersea warfare community. Its purpose is to educate its readers on undersea warfare missions and programs, with a particular focus on U.S. submarines. This journal will also draw upon the Submarine Force’s rich historical legacy to instill a sense of pride and professionalism among community members and to enhance reader awareness of the increasing relevance of undersea warfare for our nation’s defense.

The opinions and assertions herein are the personal views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official views of the U.S. Government, the Department of Defense, or the Department of the Navy.

Contributions and Feedback Welcome
Send articles, photographs (min 300 dpi electronic), and feedback to:

Military Editor Undersea Warfare CNO N87
2000 Navy Pentagon
Washington, DC 20350-2000
E-Mail: underseawarfare@navy.mil
Phone: (703) 614-9372 Fax: (703) 695-9247

Subscriptions for sale by the Superintendent of Documents,
P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954
or call (866) 512-1800 or fax (202) 512-2104
Annual cost: $25 U.S.; $35 Foreign

(ISSN 1554-0146) is published quarterly from appropriated funds by authority of the Chief of Naval Operations in accordance with NPPR P-35. The Secretary of the Navy has determined that this publication is necessary in the transaction of business required by law of the Department of the Navy. Use of funds for printing this publication has been approved by the Navy Publications and Printing Policy Committee. Reproductions are encouraged with proper attribution. Controlled circulation.