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Branch Library

Below is a listing of our public domain technical documents, open literature journal articles, and other public domain conference proceedings. Links are provided for the limited number of publications which may be viewed on-line. To request a document, please send an email to our branch business administration with the document's number, author's name, your name, and complete mailing address.

Current Technical Documents:

Anderson, K.D., "94 GHz Propagation in the Evaporation Duct," IEEE Trans. Ant. & Prop., Vol. 38, pp. 746-753, May 1990.

Anderson, K.D., R.A. Paulus and H.V. Hitney, "Fibre Optic Refractionsonde," Navy Technical Disclosure Bulletin, vol 15, no 2, pp 81-84, June 1990

Anderson, K.D., "Evaporation Duct Communications: Test Plan," NOSC TD 2033, Feb 1991.

Anderson, K.D., and C.M. Young, "Fiber-Optic Refractionsonde: Final Report," NOSC TR 1403, April 1991.

Anderson, K.D., "Fiber-Optic Refractionsonde: Final Report," NOSC TR 1403, Apr 1991.

Anderson, K.D., "Radar Detection of Low-Altitude Targets Over the Ocean," URSI/IEEE-APS Symposium, 24-28 June 1991.

Anderson, K.D., Invention Award for Adoption of Invention 70988, Fiber Optic Refractionsonde (Publication) 20 Aug 91.

Anderson, K.D., and L.T. Rogers, "Evaporation Duct Communication: Test Plan Part II," NOSC TR 1460, Nov 1991.

Anderson, K.D, "A Atatistical Assessment of Evaporation Duct effects on propagation at frequencies from 3 to 94 GHz," URSI, Boulder, CO, 7-10 Jan 1992.

Anderson, K.D., "Remote Sensing of the Evaporation Duct Using an X-band radar," URSI, Boulder, CO, 7-10 Jan 1992.

Anderson, K.D., "Remote Sensing of the Evaporation Duct Using an X-Band Radar," AGARD-CP-502, Feb 1992.

Anderson, K.D., "Radar Detection of Low-Altitude Targets in a Maritime Environment," URSI, Boulder, CO, 5-8 Jan 1993.

Anderson, K.D., "Ocean Surface Roughness by Infrared Measurements: A Failure of Shape from Reflection," NRaD TR 1609, May 1993.

Anderson, K.D., NRaD Lauritsen-Bennett Award for Excellence in Science, for "Outstanding leadership and achievements in investigation of EM propagation in the atmosphere and contributions to the U.S. Navy's propagation assesment capabilities," 1993.

Anderson, K.D., "Statistical Assessment of Propagation in Radiowave Propagation at 3 to 100 GHz Near the Horizon above the Sea, NATO/AC243/P3/RSG8," 1993.

Anderson, K.D., "Radar Detection of Low-Altitude Targets in a Maritime Environment, Final Analysis," National Radio Science Meeting, Jan 1994.

Anderson, K.D., "An Evaluation of Three GPS Receiver for Use in the GPS Sounder," NRaD TR 1637, Jan 1994.

Anderson, K.D., "Surface & Upper-Air Meteorological Measurements Supporting the NATO/AC243/Panel 3 Research Study Groups 8 & 21 Campaign in Lorient, France (September 1993)," NRaD Technical Report 1668, August 1994.

Anderson, K.D. and R.A. Paulus, "Rough Evaporation Duct (RED) Experiment," Proceedings of the Battlespace Atmospherics and Cloud Impact on Military Operations, BACIMO 2000, Fort Collins, CO, 25-27 April 2000.

Anderson, K.D., B. Brooks, P. Carey, A. Clarke, L. Cohen, K. Crahan, K. Davidson, A. De Jong, G. De Leeuw, D. Dion, S. Doss-Hammel, P. Frederickson, C. Friehe, T. Hristov, D. Khelif, M. Moerman, J. Reid, S. Reising, M. Smith, E. Terrill, and D. Tsintikidis, "The RED Experiment: An Assessment of Boundary Layer Effects in a Trade Winds Regime on Microwave and Infrared Propagation over the Sea", Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 85, 1355 (2004).


Barrios, A.E., “Modeling Surface Layer Turbulence Effects at Microwave Frequencies”, Proc. of IEEE Radar Conference, RADARCON 2008,  26-30 May 2008, Rome, Italy.

Barrios, A.E., “Atmospheric Surface Layer Turbulence Effects”, Battlespace Atmospheric and Cloud Impacts on Military Operations (BACIMO), Boston, MA, Nov 2007.

Barrios, A.E., Patterson, W.L., Sprague, R.A., “Advanced Propagation Model (APM) Version 2.1.04 Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) Documents”, SSC SD TD 3214, Feb. 2007.

Barrios, A.E., Anderson, K.A., Lindem, G.E.,"Low Altitude Propagation Effects - A VAlidation Study of the Advanced Propagation Model (APM) for Mobile Radio Applications," IEEE Ant. & Prop., Vol. 54, No. 10, October 2006, pp. 2869-2877.

Barrios, A.E., Anderson, K.A., Lindem, G.E.,"Advanced Propagation Model (APM) Analysis of VHF Signals in the Southern California Desert," SSC Technical Report 1945, August 2006.

Barrios, A.E., "Estimation of surface-based duct parameters from surface clutter using a ray trace approach", Radio Sci., Vol. 39, No. 6, 17 December 2004.

Barrios, A., Anderson, K.A., "Validation Of The Advanced Propagation Model (APM) For VHF Signals On Low Altitude Mobile Receiver Paths", IEEE International Symposium on Ant. and Prop. and USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, 21-25 June 2004, Monterey, CA.

Barrios, A., "VHF Signal [Prediction] Performance Using the Advanced Propagation Model", 2004 DoD E3 Program Review Conference, 29 Mar – 2 Apr, 2004, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.

Barrios, A., "Considerations in the Development of the Advanced Propagation Model (APM) For U.S. Navy Applications", Proc. Of the International Conf. On Radar, RADAR 2003, 3-5 Sep. 2003, Adelaide, Australia

Barrios, A.E., "A Ray Trace Approach For Estimation of Refractivity From Land Clutter", ", National Radio Science Meeting, URSI, 9-12 January 2002, p. 193.

Barrios, A.E., "Estimating Refractivity From Land Clutter: Another Look At A Simple Approach", IGARSS 2001, 9-13 July 2001, Sydney, Australia.

Barrios, A.E., Doss-Hammel, S., Zeisse, C., "Abrupt Changes in Infrared Signal Intensity Due to Refractive Effects", National Radio Science Meeting, URSI, 8-11 January 2001, p. 264.

Barrios, A.E. "Estimating Refractivity From Land Clutter", AP 2000 Millennium Conference on Antennas and Propagation, April 2000.

Barrios, A.E., "Applying the Parabolic Equation Method To Model Refractive Effects On Infrared Transmission", National Radio Science Meeting, URSI, 4-8 January 2000, p. 264.

Barrios, A.E., "A Hybrid Parabolic Equation and Ray Optics Terrain Model", Progress in Eletromagnetics Research Symposium, 8-12 July 1996, Innsbruck, Austria, p. 146.

Barrios, A.E. "Terrain Parabolic Equation Model (TPEM) Version 1.5 User's Manual", NRaD TD 2898, February 1996.

Barrios, A.E., "A Preliminary Look at a Hybrid Terrain Model", National Radio Science Meeting, URSI, 9-13 Jan 1996, p. 65.

Barrios, A.E. "Propagation Modeling for the Operational User", Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, 24-28 July, 1995, Seattle, Washington, p. 432.

Barrios, A.E., "Terrain and Refractivity Effects in a Coastal Environment: Results From the VOCAR Experiment", 11th Annual Rev. of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics, 20-25 March 1995, pp. 784-789.

Barrios, A.E., "An Approximate Method for Modeling Vegetation Effects Over Terrain", National Radio Science Meeting, URSI, 3-7 Jan 1995, p. 65.

Barrios, A.E., "Terrain and Refractivity Effects in a Coastal Environment", AGARD SPP Symposium on Propagation Assessment in Coastal Environments, 19-22 Sept. 1994.

Barrios, A.E., Craig, K.H., "Rough Surface Models Implemented Within the Split-Step Parabolic Equation Algorithm", NRaD TD 2630, April 1994.

Barrios, A.E., "A Terrain Parabolic Equation Model for Propagation in the Troposphere", IEEE Trans. on Ant. and Prop., Vol. 42, No. 1, Jan. 1994, pp. 90-98.

Barrios, A.E. "A Comparison of Rough Surface Parabolic Equation Models", National Radio Science Meeting, URSI, 5-8 Jan 1994, p. 193.

Barrios, A.E., "Terrain and Refractivity Effects on Non-Optical Paths", AGARD EPP Symposium on Multiple Mechanism Propagation Paths: Their Characterisation and Influence on System Design, 4-8 Oct. 1993, pp. 10-1 - 10-9.

Barrios, A.E., "A Terrain Parabolic Equation Model (TPEM)", National Radio Science Meeting, URSI, 5-8 Jan 1993, p. 107.

Barrios, A.E., "Terrain modeling using the split-step parabolic equation method", IEE Radar 92 Int'l Conf., No. 36512-13 Oct. 1992, pp. 66-69.

Barrios, A.E., "Parabolic Equation Modeling in Horizontally Inhomogeneous Environments", IEEE Trans. on Ant. and Prop., Vol. 40, No. 7, July 1992, pp. 791-797.

Barrios, A.E. "Parabolic Equation Modeling in Range-Dependent Environments", National Radio Science Meeting, URSI, 7-10 Jan 1992, p. 72.

Barrios, A.E. "Radio Wave Propagation in Horizontally Inhomogeneous Environments by Using the Parabolic Equation Method", NOSC TR 1430, May 1991.

Bull, H.T. and D.R. Jensen, "Comparison of Simultaneous 3-5 & 8-12 um Transmission Measurements near the Ocean Surface," Proceedings of SPIE's International Symposium Optical Engineering in Aerospace Sensing, April 1994.


Chamberlin, K., Khankin, M., Barrios, A., "Progress on the Validation of Short-Distance, Ground-to-Ground Propagation Models at VHF Frequencies", Joint IEEE APS/URSI North American Radio Science Meeting, June 2003.

Craig, K.H., Barrios, A.E., "Comparison of radiowave propagation parabolic equation computer implementations", NRPP Research Note, No. 136, Dec. 1992.


Davidson, K.L. The Use of Kite Observations to Study Air-Sea Interaction-Controlled Atmospheric Surface Layer Profiles during the RED Experiment, P.S. Guest, D. L. Mabey, P. A. Frederickson, K. D. Anderson, S. M. Doss-Hammel, and D. Tsintikidis, AMS Proceedings 12th Conference on Air-Sea Interactions, 2003.

Davidson, K. L., P.S. Guest, D. L. Mabey, P. A. Frederickson, K. D. Anderson, S. M. Doss-Hammel, and D. Tsintikidis, "The Use of Kite Observations to Study Air-Sea Interaction-Controlled Atmospheric Surface Layer Profiles during the RED Experiment", AMS Proceed ings 12th Conference on Air-Sea Interactions, (2003).

De Jong, A., G. de Leeuw, P. J. Fritz, M. Moerman, K. L. Davidson, P. Frederickson, S. Gathman, K. Littfin, and D. Jensen. "Long-Range Transmission at Low Elevations over the Ocean," Proceedings of NATO Research and Technology Organization Symposium on "E-O Propagation, Signature and System Performance under Adverse Meteorological Conditions Considering Out-of Area Operations." Naples, Italy, 16-19 March 1998.

Degache, M.A.C., A. M.J.van Eijk, S. M. Hammel, D. Tsintikidis, "Analysis and deconstruction of mirages to assess environmental features", SPIE 7463, (2009).

Degache, M. A. C., S. Hammel, Finding the range to a distant object near the sea surface", Proc. SPIE 6708, 67080U (2007).

Doss-Hammel, S.M., Zeisse, C.R., Barrios, A.E., et.al., "Low altitude infrared propagation in a coastal zone: refraction and scattering", Applied Optics, Vol. 41, No. 18, June 2002, pp. 3706-3724.

Doss-Hammel, S.M., "Sensitivity Analysis for Infrared Propagation", Proc. 1997 Battlespace Atmospherics Conference, San Diego, CA, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Technical Document 2989, 601-610 (1997).

Doss-Hammel, S.M., Barnett, J., and Platt, N., "Diagnosing Intermittency", in "Applied Nonlinear Dynamics and Stochastic Systems Near the Millennium", Amer. Inst. Phys. conf. proc. 411, 51-56, (1997).

Doss-Hammel, S.M., P. Hammer, "System Identification in Experimental Data", in "Chaotic, Fractal, and Nonlinear Signal Processing'', Amer. Inst. Phys. conf. proc. 375,121-133, (1995).

Doss-Hammel, S.M., N. Platt, "Topological description of mirage effects", Proceedings of the Vision Geometry conference, SPIE 2573, 398-406, (1995).

Doss-Hammel, S.M., D. Tsintikidis, "Refractive Propagation Factor and the Rough Evaporation Duct Experiment", SPIE Proceedings for the 9th International Symposium on Remote Sensing, Vol. 4884, 2002.

Doss-Hammel, S.M., D. Tsintikidis, P. A. Frederickson, and K. L. Davidson, "Near-Surface Scintillation in the Marine Atmospheric Layer during the RED Field Campaign, AMS Proceedings 12th Conference on Air-Sea Interactions, 2003.

Doss-Hammel, S.M., D. Tsintikidis, A. M. J. van Eijk, G. J. Kunz, "Prediction and Exploitation: The use of the EOSTAR model in the marine infrared propagation environment", BACIMO Proceedings, 2003.

Doss-Hammel S., E. Oh, J. Ricklin, F. Eaton, C. Gilbreath, D. Tsintikidis, "A Comparison of Optical Turbulence Models", Proc. SPIE 5550, 236 (2004).

Doss-Hammel, S.M., D. Tsintikidis, D. Merritt, J. Fontana, "Atmospheric Characterization for High Energy Laser Beam Propagation in the Maritime Environment", Proc. SPIE 5552, 208 (2004).

Doss-Hammel, S. M., D. Tsintikidis, A. M. J. van Eijk, G. J. Kunz; "Refractive Effects, Turbulence, and the EOSTAR model", Proc. SPIE 5406, 733 (2004).

Doss-Hammel, S., D. Tsintikidis, A. M. J. van Eijk, G. J. Kunz, "Prediction And Exploitation: The use of the EOSTAR model in the marine infrared propagation environment" BACIMO September 2003.

Doss-Hammel, S., "The geometrical optics approach to atmospheric propagation models",Proc. SPIE 4976, (2003).

Doss-Hammel, S.M., D. Tsintikidis, K. L. Davidson, and P. A. Frederickson, 2002b: "The refractive propagation factor and the Rough Evaporation Duct experiment", Proceedings SPIE 9th International Symposium on Remote Sensing, 4884, 149 (2002).

Doss-Hammel, S.M., D. Tsintikidis, P. A. Frederickson, K. L. Davidson, "Near-Surface Scintillation in the Marine Atmospheric Layer during the RED Field Campaign", AMS Proceedings 12th Conference on Interactions of the Sea and Atmosphere Conference, Long Beach, CA (2003).

Doss-Hammel, S.M., Zeisse, C.R., Barrios, A.E., de Leeuw, G., Moerman, M., De Jong, A.N., Frederickson, P.A., Davidson, K.L., "Low-Altitude Infrared Propagation in a Coastal Zone: Refraction and Scattering", Applied Optics, 41, 3706{3724, (2002).

Doss-Hammel, S., "Mirages, Magnification and the Refractive Propagation Factor", Proc. SPIE 4820, 840 (2002).

Doss-Hammel, S., and Zeisse, C., "Refraction and Scintillation in the Atmospheric Surface Layer", Proc. SPIE 4821, 291 (2002).


Forand, J. L. , M. Duffy, C. Zeisse, S. Gathman, A. de Jong, and D. Dion, "Atmospheric Effects on Low Elevation Transmission Measurements at EOPACE," Proceedings of SPIE volume 3125 of the Conference on Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere, 29-31 July 1997, p. 123-134.

Forand, J., D. Dion, M. Duffy, A. de Jong, G. de Leeuw, S. Gathman, K. Littfin, K. Davidson. "Low-Level IR Transmission Measurements Over a 15 km Littoral Path,"Proceedings of the Battlespace Aerosol Conference, SPAWAR Systems Center San Diego, 2-4 December, 1997.

Frederickson, P.A., K. L. Davidson, C. R. Zeisse, and C. S. Bendall, "Estimating the Refractive Index Structure Parameter (Cn2) Over the Ocean Using Bulk Methods," J. Appl. Met. (in press).

Frederickson, P.A., K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and C. Bendall, "Estimating the Refractive Index Structure Parameter Over the Ocean Using Bulk Methods," Proceedings of the 1997 Battlespace Atmospherics Conference 2-4 December, Eds. K.D. Anderson and J.H. Richter, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Technical Document 2989, December 1997.

Frederickson, P.A., K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and C. Bendall, "Near-Surface Scintillation Estimates from a Buoy Using Bulk Methods during EOPACE," SET Symposium on "EO Propagation, Signature, and System Performance under Adverse Meteorological Conditions, Considering Out-of-Area Operations," Naples, Italy, 16-19 March 1998.

Frederickson, P.A., K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, I. Bendall: "Estimating near surface scintillation (Cn2) for overwater littoral paths," Proceedings, Battlespace Atmospheric and Cloud Impacts on Military Operations (BACIMO) Conference, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1-3 December 1998, pp. 259-266.

Frederickson, P. A., J. T. Murphree, K. L. Twigg, and A. Barrios, 2008.  A Modern Global Evaporation Duct Climatology.  Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Radar (RADAR 2008), 2-5 September 2008, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 292-296. [published, refereed]

Frederickson, P., T. Murphree, K. Twigg, and A. Barrios, 2008.  Developing a Modern Global Evaporation Duct Climatology.  IEEE AP-S/USNC/URSI Conference, 8 July 2008, San Diego, CA.

Frederickson, P., A. Barrios, T. Murphree, and K. Twigg, 2007.  Modern Operational Climatologies of Electromagnetic Propagation in the Marine Atmosphere: Part 1.  Battlespace Atmospheric and Cloud Impacts on Military Operations (BACIMO) Conference, 6-8 November 2007, Boston, MA.

Frederickson, P.A., K. L. Davidson, K. D. Anderson, S. Doss-Hammel, and D. Tsintikidis, "Air-Sea Interaction Processes Observed from Buoy and Propagation Measurements during the RED Experiment, AMS Proceedings 12th Conference on Air-Sea Interactions, 2003.

Frederickson, P.A, S. Hammel, D. Tsintikidis, and K. Davidson, "Recent results on modeling the refractive-index structure parameter over the ocean surface using bulk methods, SPIE Proceedings for Atmospheric Optical Modeling, Vol. 5891, 2005.

Frederickson, P.A., S. Hammel, and D. Tsintikidis, "Measurements and modeling of optical turbulence in a maritime environment", SPIE Proceedings for Atmospheric Optical Modeling, Measurement, and Simulation II, Vol. 6303, 2006.

Frederickson, P.A., S. Hammel, and D. Tsintikidis, "Improving bulk Cn2 models over-ocean applications through new determination of the dimensionless temperature structure parameter", SPIE Proceedings for Atmospheric Optics: Models, Measurement, and Target-in-the-Loop Propagation, Vol. 6708, 2007.

Frederickson, P. A., K. L. Davidson, K. D. Anderson, S. Doss-Hammel, and D. Tsintikidis, "Air-Sea Interaction Processes Observed from Buoy and Propagation Measurements during the RED Experiment", AMS Proceedings 12th Conference on Air-Sea Interactions, (2003).

Frederickson, P. A., S. Hammel, D. Tsintikidis, "Improving bulk C2n models for over-ocean applications through new determinations of the dimensionless temperature structure parameter", Proc. SPIE 6708, 670807 (2007).

Frederickson, P. A., S. Hammel, D. Tsintikidis, "Measurements and modeling of optical turbulence in a maritime environment", Proc. SPIE 6303, 630307 (2006).

Frederickson,P. A., S. Doss-Hammel, D. Tsintikidis, "Recent results on modeling the refractive index structure parameter over the ocean surface using bulk methods", Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910C (2005).


Gadwal, V., Ramlall, S., Salgado, E., Hobson, B., and Barrios, A., "A Wideband Channel Model Using the Parabolic Equation with an Experimental Validation Method," URSI, Boulder, CO, 6-9 Jan 2010.

Gadwal, V., Barrios, A., “Channel Modeling using the Parabolic Equation for RF Communications,” MILCOM, 2009.

Gadwal, V., Hammel, .S., “Free Space Optical Communication Links in a Marine Environment," Proceedings of the SPIE, 2006.

Gadwal, V., Krolik, J., “A Performance Evaluation of Autoregressive Clutter Mitigation Methods for Over-the-Horizon Radar,” Conference Record of the Thirty-Seventh Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, 2003.

Gathman, S.G., "The Marine Aerosol and its Relationship to Meteorological Processes as Observed from the USNS LYNCH," Chap. 14, Proc. Workshop on the Fate and Influence of Marine Spray, Marseille, Univ. of Conn. Press, pp 137-145, 1990.

Gathman, S.G., "Ocean Aerosol Measurements and Models in the Straits of Florida (The KEY-90 Experiment)," SPIE, Vol. 1688, Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing, pp. 2-13, 1992.

Gathman, S.G., D.R. Jensen, W.A. Hooper, H.E. Gerber, K.L. Davidson, et al., "Initial NOVAM Evaluation Utilizing EO and Meteorological Data from KEY-90," NRaD TR 1608, Sep 1993.

Gathman, S.G., D.R. Jensen, et al, "NOVAM Evaluation Utilizing Electro-Optics and Meteorological Data from Key-90," NCCOSC RDTE DIV Technical Document 1608, September 1993.

Gathman, S.G., and K.L. Davidson, "The Navy Oceanic Vertical Aerosol Model," NRaD Technical Report 1634, Dec 1993.

Gerber, H., S. Gathman, J. James, et al., "NRL Tethered Balloon Measurements at San Nicolas Island during FIRE IFO 1987," in FIRE Science Results 1988, NASA Conference Pub. 3083, Jul 1990.

Goroch, A. and K. Littfin. "Analysis of Nephelometer Observations During EOPACE IOP-7," Proceedings of NATO Research and Technology Organization Symposium on "E-O Propagation, Signature and System Performance under Adverse Meteorological Conditions Considering Out-of Area Operations." Naples, Italy, 16-19 March 1998.

Gossard, E.E., D.E. Wolfe, K.P. Moran, R.A. Paulus, K.D. Anderson, and L.T. Rogers, "Measurement of Clear-Air Gradients and Turbulence Properties with Radar Wind Profilers," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15(2), pp. 321-342, April 1998.


Hammel,S., D. Kichura, "An analysis of laser beam degradation in a maritime environment", Proc. SPIE 7090, 70900K (2008).

Hammel, S., A. van Eijk, and D. Tsintikidis, "ANAM vs. NAM: is the difference significant?", SPIE Proceedings for Atmospheric Optical Modeling, Vol. 5891, 2005.

Hammel, S., D. Tsintikidis, D. Merritt, J. Fontana, "Atmospheric characterization for high energy laser beam propagation in the maritime environment", Proc. 8th Ann. Directed Energy Symposium, (2005).

Hammel,S., B. Bachmann, "Generating an accurate vertical aerosol profile", SPIE 7463, (2009).

Hammel,S. "Turbulence effects on laser propagation in a marine environment", Proc. SPIE 6708, 670804 (2007).

Hammel,S., A. van Eijk, D. Tsintikidis, "ANAM versus NAM: is the difference significant?", Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910G (2005).

Hammer, P., Platt, N., Hammel, S., Heagy, J., and B. D. Lee, "Experimental Observation of On-Off Intermittency", Phys. Rev.Lett. 73, 1095-1098 (1994).

Hattan, C.P., "Specification for a Surface-Search Radar-Detection-Range Model," NOSC TD 1930, Sep 1990.

Hattan, C.P. and R.A. Paulus, "EREPS: Engineer's Refractive Effects Prediction System," in Performance Assessment Models Network, NATO Seasparrow Project Office, Naval Sea Systems Command, change package of Aug 1992.

Hattan, C.P., "A Raytrace Model for Propagation Loss," NRaD TR 1576, Jan 1993.

Heagy, J., Platt, N., and Hammel, S., "Characterization of On-Off intermittency", Phys. Rev. E 49, 1140-1150 (1994).

Heagy, J. and Hammel, S., "The birth of strange nonchaotic attractors", Physica D 70, 140-153 (1994).

Hitney, H.V., and R. Vieth, "Statistical Assessment of Evaporation Duct Propagation," IEEE Trans. Ant. & Prop., Vol. 38, pp. 794-799, June 1990.

Hitney, H.V., and L.R. Hitney, "Frequency Diversity Effects of Evaporation Duct Propagation," IEEE Trans. Ant. & Prop., vol. 38, pp. 1694-1700, Oct 1990.

Hitney, H.V., J.H. Richter, R.A. Pappert, K.D. Anderson and G.B. Baumgartner, Jr., "Tropospheric Propagation," in Radio Wave Propagation Modeling, Prediction and Assessment, J.H. Richter ed., AGARDograph No. 326, December 1990.

Hitney, H.V., "Remote Sensing of Refractivity Structure by Direct Radio Measurements at UHF," AGARD-CP 502, Feb 1992.

Hitney, H.V., "Hybrid Ray Optics and Parabolic Equation Methods for Radar Propagation Modeling," RADAR 92, IEE Conf. Pub. 365, pp. 58-61, 12-13 Oct 1992.

Hitney, H.V., "Whispering Gallery Effects in the Troposphere," Radio Science 27(6), pp. 893-898, Nov-Dec 1992.

Hitney, H.V., J. H. Richter, R.A. Pappert, K.D. Anderson and G.B. Baumgartner, Jr., "Radio Propagation," Encycl. of Phys. Science and Tech., Vol. 14, 2nd edition, Academic Press, 1992.

Hitney, H.V., "A Practical Tropospheric Scatter Model Using the Parabolic Equation," IEEE Trans. Ant. & Prop., vol. 41, no. 7, p. 905-909, July 1993.

Hitney, H.V., "Modelling Tropospheric Ducting Effects on Satellite- to-Ground Paths," AGARD-EPP Symposium on Multiple Mechanism Propagation Paths (MMPPs) Their Characterization & Influence on System Design, p. 16-1 to 16-5, AGARD-CP-543, 4-8 Oct 1993.

Hitney, H.V., "An Approximate Model for Vertical Polarization and Surface Roughness Using the Parabolic Equation," National Radio Science Meeting, Jan 1994.

Hitney, H.V., "Method and System for Inferring the Radio Refractive Index Structure of the Atmosphere from Radio Measurements," U.S. Patent 5,327,359 issued 5 July 1994.

Hitney, H.V., "High Speed Method for Predicting Radio-Wave Propagation," U.S. Patent 5,301,127, issued 5 April 1994.

Hitney, H.V., "Modeling Surface Effects with the Parabolic Equation Method," IGARSS '94, Aug 1994.

Hitney, H.V., "Refractive Effects from VHF to EHF," AGARD LS 196, Oct 1994.

Hitney, H.V., "Modeling Nonperfect Reflection from the Sea for Range-Dependent Ducting Conditions," AGARD-SPP Symposium on Propagation in Coastal Environments, p. 10-1 to 10-6, AGARD-CP-567, Feb 1995.

Hughes, H.G., and M.R. Paulson, "Radio Wave Refractivity Profiles Deduced from Lidar Measurements," Patent Disclosure; Navy Case #72,631, Dec 1990.

Hughes, H.G., "Radio Wave Refractivity Profiles Deduced from Lidar Measurements," Patent Disclosure; Navy Case #72,631, 1991.

Hughes, H.G., "Sky and Sea Infrared Radiance Models: A Data Report of Measured Backgrounds and Meteorological Parameters," Contractor Report, STC No. 2558, N66001-88-D-0115/0015, Dec 1991.

Hughes, H.G., "Sky and Sea Infrared Radiance Models: An Evaluation Report for the 3-5 micron and 8-12 micron Wavelength Bands," Contractor Report, STC No. 2574, N66001-88-D-0115/0015, Jan 1992.

Hughes, H.G., M.R. Paulson and J.H. Richter, "Radio Refractivity Profiles Deduced from Aerosol Lidar Measurements," AGARD-CP-502, Feb 1992.

Hughes, H.G., "Dependence of Infrared Sea Radiance on Wind Speed," STC Contractor Report 2666(A), N66001-88-D-0115/0020, Dec 1992.

Hughes, H.G., "Infrared Transmittance Between A Sensor and A Low-Altitude Target Close to the Horizon," STC Contractor Report 2666(B), N66001-88-D-0115/0020, Dec 1992.

Hughes, H.G., and C.P. McGrath, "Surface Ship Infrared Signatures Determined Using an Airborne Imaging System," Science and Technology Corp. TR 2727, N66001-88-D-0115/0024, Sep 1993.

Hughes, H.G., "Comparison of 3-5 and 8-12 Micron Infrared Search and Track Systems Performance Predictions in the Presence of Maritime Stratocumulus Clouds," Contractor Report, Science and Technology Corp. 2788, N66001-88-D-0115/0024, Dec 1993.

Hughes,H.G., C. R. Zeisse, and C. P. McGrath, "An Algorithm for Ship Temperature Retrieval from Airborne Infrared Radiometric Measurements," paper 36, AGARD SPP Symposium, Remote Sensing: A Valuable Source of Information, Toulouse, France, 22-25 April, 1996.

Hughes, H.G., C. R. Zeisse, "Infrared Propagation Modeling Beneath Marine Stratus Clouds", J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. (in press).


Jensen, D.R., "Horizontal variability of the marine boundary layer structure upwind of San Nicolas Island during program FIRE, 1987," Optical Engineering, 29(2), 127-130, Feb 1990.

Jensen, D.R., "Evaluation of the Navy Oceanic Vertical Aerosol Model UsingLidar and PMS Particle-Size Spectrometers," NOSC TR 1391, Dec 1990.

Jensen, D.R., "Evaluation of the Navy Oceanic Vertical Aerosol Models Using Lidar and PMS Particle-Size Spectrometer," Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA, Technical Report 1391, December 1990.

Jensen, D.R., "Evaluation of the Navy Oceanic Vertical Aerosol Model Using Lidar and PMS Particle Size Spectrometers," SPIE Proceedings, vol. 1487, April 1991.

Jensen, D.R., H.G. Hughes and M.R. Paulson, "Lidar Remote Sensing Techniques for Developing and Evaluating Atmospheric Aerosol Models," AGARD Conference Proceedings 502, September/October 1991.

Jensen, D.R., H.G. Hughes, and M.R. Paulson, "Lidar Remote Sensing Techniques for Developing and Evaluating Atmospheric Aerosol Models," AGARD-CP-502, Feb 1992.

Jensen, D.R., "Evaluation of the Aureole Lidar Technique for Estimating Extinction Profiles Using PMS Particle Size Spectrometer Measurements," NRaD TR 1483, Feb 1992.

Jensen, D.R., G. deLeeuw and A.M.J. vanEijk, "Work Plan for the Marine Aerosol Properties and Thermal Imager Performance Trial (MAPTIP)," NCCOSC Technical Document 2573, September 1993.

Jensen, D.R., G. de Leuuw and M.J. Van Eijk, "Summary of the Marine Aerosol Properties and Thermal Imager Performance Trial (MAPTIP)," National Radio Science Meeting, Jan 1994.

Jensen, D. R., C. R. Zeisse, K. M. Littfin, S. G. Gathman. "EOPACE (Electrooptical Propagation Assessment in Coastal Environments) Overview and Initial Accomplishments," Proceedings of SPIE Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere, Vol 3125, July 1997.

Jensen, D. R., C.R. Zeisse, and K.M. Littfin, “EOPACE (Electrooptical Propagation Assessment in Coastal Environments) Overview and Initial Accomplishments,” accepted for presentation at the XXVIth General Assembly of the International Union of Radio Science (URSI), August 13-21, 1999, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1999.

Jensen, D. R., S.G. Gathman, C.R. Zeisse, and K.M. Littfin,”EOPACE (Electrooptical Propagation Assessment in Coastal Environments) Overview and Initial Accomplishment,” 1999 European Aerosol Conference, Prague, CZ, 6-10 September 1999, in press (Journal of Aerosol Science).

Jensen, D.R., S. G. Gathman, C. R. Zeisse, and K. M. Littfin "EOPACE (Electrooptical Propagation Assessment in Coastal Environments,: Overview and Initial Accomplishments" J. Aer. Sci. 30, S53-S55 (1999).

Jensen, D. R., S. G. Gathman, C. R. Zeisse, and K. M. Littfin, “EOPACE (Electrooptical Propagation Assessment in Coastal Environments) Overview and Initial Accomplishments,” Proceedings of Millennium Conference on Antennas and Propagation, AP2000, Davos, Switzerland, 9-14 April 2000.

Jensen, D. R., S. G. Gathman, C. R. Zeisse, C. P. McGrath, G. de Leeuw, M. H. Smith, P. Frederickson, and K. L. Davidson,"Electrooptical Propagation Assessment in Coastal Environments (EOPACE): summary and accomplishments," Opt. Eng., Vol 40 No. 8, pp 1486-1498, August 2001


Krolik, J.L., J. Tabrikian, S. Vasudevan and L.T. Rogers, "Using radar sea clutter to estimate refractivity profiles associated with the capping inversion of the marine atmsopheric boundary layer", Proc. of IEEE 1999 International Geosciences Symposium, pp. 649-651, Jul., 1999

Kunz, G.J., M. M. Moerman, A. M. J. van Eijk, S. M. Doss-Hammel, and D. Tsintikidis, "EOSTAR: an electro-optical performance model for predicting atmospheric refraction, turbulence, and transmission in the marine surface layer", SPIE Proceedings for the 10th International Symposium on Remote Sensing, Vol. 5237-13, 2003.

Kunz, G.J., A. M. J. van Eijk, D. Tsintikidis, and S. M. Hammel, "Effects of atmospheric refraction and turbulence on long-range IR imaging in the marine surface layer: comparison between experiment and simulation", SPIE Proceedings for Atmospheric Optical Modeling, Vol. 5891, 2005.

Kunz, G. J. , A. M. J. van Eijk, D. Tsintikidis, S. M. Hammel, "Effects of atmospheric refraction and turbulence on long-range IR imaging in the marine surface layer: Comparisons between experiment and simulation", Proc. SPIE 5891, 58910A (2005).

Kunz,G.J., M.A.C. Degache, M. M. Moerman, A.M.J. van Eijk, F.P. Neele, S. M. Doss-Hammel, D. Tsintikidis, "Status and developments in EOSTAR, a model to predict IR Sensor performance in the marine environment", Proc. SPIE 5572, 101 (2004).


Littfin, K.M., "Technical Manual, Redesigned ARC-2A Automatic Radon Counter," NCCOSC RDTE DIV, San Diego, CA, Technical Document 2395, September 1992.

Littfin, K. M., "Addition of default meteorological profiles to the Navy Oceanic Vertical Aerosol Model," SPIE Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing IV Symposium, 17-19 April, 1995, Volume 2471, pp. 143-151.

Littfin, K. M., C. P. McGrath, D. R. Jensen, and H. G. Hughes, "Dependence of Mid & Far Infrared Sea Radiances on Viewing Angle," SPIE Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing IV Symposium, 17-19 April, 1995, Volume 2471, pp. 152-168.

Littfin, K. M., and D. R. Jensen, "An Overview of EOPACE (Electrooptical Propagation Assessment in Coastal Environments), Including In Situ and Remote Sensing Techniques," Proceedings for AGARD Symposium on Remote Sensing, Toulouse, France, April, 1996.

Littfin, K. M., "Compilation of Averaged Meteorological Profiles by Marsden Square," NCCOSC RDTE DIV, San Diego, CA, Technical Document 2921, August, 1996.

Littfin, K. M. and A. K. Goroch. "Determination of an Air Mass Using Nephelometer Measurements and the Navy Aerosol Model," Proceedings of SPIE Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere, Vol 3125, July 1997.

Littfin, K. M., A. K. Goroch, and T. Battalino. "Comparison of Three Methods of Characterizing an Air Mass," Proceedings of the Battlespace Aerosol Conference, SPAWAR Systems Center San Diego, 2-4 December, 1997.

Littfin,K., S. Gathman, D. Jensen, and C. Zeisse, "Analysis of Three Methods of Characterizing an Air Mass," SET Symposium on "EO Propagation, Signature, and System Performance under Adverse Meteorological Conditions, Considering Out-of-Area Operations," Naples, Italy, 16-19 March 1998.

Littfin, K., S. Gathman, D. Jensen, C. Zeisse. "Analysis of Three Methods of Characterizing an Air Mass," Proceedings of NATO Research and Technology Organization Symposium on "E-O Propagation, Signature and System Performance under Adverse Meteorological Conditions Considering Out-of Area Operations." Naples, Italy, 16-19 March 1998.

Littfin,K., S. Gathman, D. Jensen, and C. Zeisse, "Analysis of Three Methods of Characterizing an Air Mass," SET Symposium on "EO Propagation, Signature, and System Performance under Adverse Meteorological Conditions, Considering Out-of-Area Operations," Naples, Italy, 16-19 March 1998.


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McGrath, C.F., "PREOS Program for Determining Ranges of Airborne FLIR Systems," NRaD TR 1488, January 1992.

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McGrath, C.P., C. R. Zeisse, and H. G. Hughes, "Sensing Zero-Range Surface Ship Infrared Signatures," paper 34, AGARD SPP Symposium Remote Sensing: A Valuable Source of Information, Toulouse, France, 22-25 April, 1996.

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Patterson, W.L., C.P. Hattan, H.V. Hitney, R.A. Paulus, A.E. Barrios, G.E. Lindem, and K.D. Anderson, "Engineer's Refractive Effects Prediction System (EREPS) Revision 2.2, NOSC TD 1342, Rev. 2.2, Jun 1992.

Patterson, W.L. and H.V. Hitney, "Radio Physical Optics CSCI Software Documents," NRaD Technical Document 2403, December 1992.

Patterson, W.L., "An At-Sea Evaluation of an Infrared/Resistance Temperature Device for Air/Sea-Surface Temperature Measurements," NRaD TD 1639, March 1994.

Patterson, W.L., C.P. Hattan, G.E. Lindem, R.A. Paulus, H.V. Hitney, K.D. Anderson and A.E. Barrios, "Engineer's Refractive Effects Prediction Systems (EREPS) Version 3.0," NRaD Technical Document 2648, May 1994.

Patterson, W.L., "Engineer's Refractive Effects Prediction System, Version 3.0," NRaD TD 2643, June 1994.

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Paulson, M.R. and H.G. Hughes, "A Lidar Technique for Adjusting Aerosol Model Number Densities Close to the Ocean Surface," NOSC TR 1388, December 1990.

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Paulus, R.A., "The Lorentz Reciprocity Theorem as a Consistency Test for Propagation Models," AGARD-EPP Symposium on Multiple Mechanism Propagation Paths (MMPPs) Their Characterization & Influence on System Design, p. 17-1 to 17-7, 4-8 Oct 1993.

Paulus, R.A., "9.6 GHz Propagation in the Evaporation Duct: Model Predictions and Comparisons to Data," National Radio Science Meeting, Jan 1994.

Paulus, R.A., "The Lorentz Reciprocity Theorem and Range-Dependent Propagation Modeling," IEEE Antennas Propagation, vol. 42, no. 2, Feb 1994.

Paulus, R.A., "Propagation in the Evaporation Duct: Model Predictions and Comparisons to Data," NRaD TR 1644, March 1994.

Paulus, R.A., "VOCAR: An Experiment in Variability of Coastal Atmospheric Refractivity," IGARSS '94, Aug 1994.

Paulus, R. A., "An Overview of an Intensive Observation Period onVariability of Coastal Atmospheric Refractivity," in "Propagation Assessment in Coastal Environments," AGARD CP-567, 1994, paper 30.

Paulus, R. A., "Validation of the Radio Physical Optics Propagation Model," in Proceedings of the 11th Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics Symposium (ACES95), pp. 809-815, 20-24 March 1995, Monterey, CA.

Paulus, R. A., "Proceedings of the Electromagnetic Propagation Workshop," NOSC TD 2891, Dec. 1995.

Paulus, R.A., L.T. Rogers, and A.E. Barrios, "Refractivity Variability Effects on Propagation Assessments," Proceedings of the EM/EO Prediction Requirements and Products Symposium, 3-5 June 1997, Naval Postgraduate School.

Paulus, R.A., "Troposcatter Calculations With A Parabolic Equation Model," Proceedings of the 1997 Battlespace Atmospherics Conference 2-4 December, Eds. K.D. Anderson and J.H. Richter, SPAWARSYSCEN TD 2989, March 1998.

Paulus, R.A. and K.D. Anderson, "Applications of an Evaporation Duct Climatology," in Proceedings of URSI Commission F Open Symposium on Climatic Parameters in Radiowave Propagation Prediction, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 27-29 April 1998, pp. 104-107, April 1998.

Paulus, R.A. and K.D. Anderson, "Application Of An Evaporation Duct Climatology In The Littoral," Proceedings of the Battlespace Atmospherics and Cloud Impact on Military Operations, BACIMO 2000, Fort Collins, CO, 25-27 April 2000.

Paulus, R.A., "Parametric Study of Propagation in Evaporation Ducting and Subrefractive Conditions," SPAWARSYSCEN TR 1844, November 2000.

Paulus, R.A. and W.K. Moision, "Analysis of Evaporation Duct Height Correlation," Proceedings of the Battlespace Atmospherics and Cloud Impact on Military Operations, BACIMO 2001, Fort Collins, CO, 10-12 July 2001, ARL-SR-01126, October 2001.

Paulus, R.A. and K.D. Anderson, "Atmospheric Propagation Effects in NAVWAR," Proceedings of the Battlespace Atmospherics and Cloud Impact on Military Operations, BACIMO 2003, Monterey, CA, 9-11 September 2003.

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Rogers, L.T., Demonstration of an efficient boundary layer Parameterization for unbiased propagation estimation, accepted by Radio Science, May, 1998

Rogers, L.T., Modeling the atmospheric refractivity structure for the EM inverse medium problem, Proceedings of the 1997 Battlespace Atmospherics Conference, December 2-4, 1997, J.H. Richter and K.D. Anderson, Eds., SPAWAR Sys. Cen., San Diego, Tech. Doc. 2989, 1997

Rogers, L.T., Likelihood estimation of tropospheric refractivity parameters, Radio Science, 32(1), Jan. - Feb., 1997

Rogers, L.T., R.A. Paulus, and J. Cook, Fusing data from the mesoscale model and radio remote sensing, Proceedings of the 1996 Battlespace Atmospherics Conference, December 3-5, 1996

Rogers, L.T., and R.A. Paulus, "Measured performance of evaporation duct models," Proc. Battlespace Atmospherics Conf., 3-5 Dec. 1996, Naval Command, Command and Ocean Surviellance Center RDTE Div. Tech. Doc. 2938, pp. 273-281, Dec., 1996

Rogers, L.T., Effects of the variability of atmospheric refractivity on propagation estimates, IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, 44(4), pp. 460-465, April, 1996

Rogers, L.T., Remote sensing of evaporation ducts using SHF propagation measurements, Proc. of AGARD SPP symposium on "Remote Sensing: A valuable Source of Information," AGARD CP-582, pp. 7.1 - 7.13, Oct., 1996

Rogers, L.T., "Variability of Coastal Atmospheric Refractivity (VOCAR) Experiment Radio Measurements," National Radio Science Meeting, Jan 1994.

Rogers, L.T., "Statistical Analysis of the Variability of Atmospheric Propagation Effects in the Southern California Coastal Area," IGARSS '94, Aug 1994.

Rogers, L.T. and R.A. Paulus, "Measured performance of evaporation duct models," Proc. Battlespace Atmospherics Conference, BAC'96, 3-5 Dec 1996, NRaD TD 2938, 1996.

Rogers, L.T., R.A. Paulus, and J. Cook, "Fusing data from the mesoscale model and radio remote sensing," Proc. Battlespace Atmospherics Conference, BAC'96, 3-5 Dec 1996, NRaD TD 2938, 1996.

Rogers, L.T., C.P. Hattan and J.L. Krolik, Using radar sea echo to estimate surface layer refractivity profiles, Proc. of IEEE 1999 International Geosciences Symposium, pp. 658-662, Jul., 1999

Rogers, L.T., C.P. Hattan and J.K. Stapleton, Estimating evaporation duct heights from radar sea echo, accepted for publication by Radio Science, Jan., 2000


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Shattuck, J., D. Tsintikidis, W. Pereira, G. Kangas, S. Fedorenko, D. Kichura, and A. Goroch, "Investigation of Thermal Signature of a Type-18 Periscope: Baseline Measurements and Verification/Validation Effort", SSC-Pacific Technical Document 3229, 2008.

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Tsintikidis, D., S. Doss-Hammel, P. A. Frederickson, and K. L. Davidson, "Infrared Propagation in the Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer: Extinction and Refraction", AMS Proceedings 12th Conference on Air-Sea Interactions, 2003.

Tsintikidis, D., S. Hammel, and P. Frederickson, "Modeling the effects of aerosols on transmission measurements at Zuniga Shoal, California", SPIE Proceedings for Atmospheric Optical Modeling, Measurement, and Simulation II, Vol. 6303, 2006.

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Updated: 7/14/2011 5:40 PM EST   Published (151.0)