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Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and Ergonomics



Introduction   |   Discussion   |   Recommendations   |   Conclusion   |   Resources

Introduction

Planning, development, and production of new equipment and systems and the facilities needed for their support must take into account how the operator and maintainer fit into the design. Omitting the human factor and ergonomics (fitting the workplace to the Ordnance loading is a key area for consideration of HFE/Ergonomics during acquisition planningworker) from designs has compromised the safe and efficient production, operation, and maintenance of equipment and facilities, both in the military and civilian sectors, leading to injuries and damage to equipment as well as costly retrofits.

Impacts of design influence material handling, assembly, and repair and interpretation of/interaction with displays and controls. Designs that disregard the basics of human physical characteristics and cognitive abilities can be associated with inefficient and costly operation and maintenance and with the injury or even fatality of the user. Aside from incurred costs to the Navy for treatment and rehabilitation, injuries mean lost or restricted work time and productivity on the job as well as administrative costs associated with accident investigation and case management. Injuries can also reduce morale and job satisfaction, which can result in employee turnover and absenteeism. Finally, accidents result in time and material costs when equipment has to be repaired or replaced and operations are delayed or cancelled. Poor designs, therefore, can and have jeopardized mission effectiveness, program performance, schedule, and costs.

Weapons department personnel push a target overboard.Designs that consider the human element in all phases, maximize productivity and operational effectiveness while protecting operators and maintainers from accidents and injuries. For this reason, all Department of Defense (DoD) acquisition programs are required to incorporate Human Systems Integration, or HSI, a disciplined, unified, and interactive approach to integrate human considerations (both cognitive and physical) into system design to improve total system performance and reduce injuries and costs of ownership. HSI addresses manpower, personnel, training, safety and occupational health, survivability, habitability, and human factors engineering.

Integral to HSI in the design/acquisition process is using Human Factors Engineering (HFE)/Ergonomics to fit the work to the worker, instead of forcing the worker to adapt to existing working conditions. In order to avoid workplace hazards and resultant injuries and to reduce the errors/accidents in the operation, maintenance, or support of a system, Human Factors/Ergonomics involves designing systems and equipment that are matched to the abilities, dimensions, and limitations of the people who will operate and maintain them. Department of Defense Instruction, DoDI 5000.02, requires the Project Manager to ensure HFE is addressed. [Click here to read more]. Navy policy, SECNAVINST 5000.2E, calls for HFE principals to be applied throughout the acquisition process [Click here to read more], and the Defense Acquisition Guidebook, Chapter 6 elaborates on HFE in the acquisition process [Click here to read more from the Defense Acquisition Guidebook].

This portion of the Acquisition Safety website provides an overview of HFE/Ergonomics as they relate to successful acquisition programs. It describes the potential consequences of deficiencies in design; the challenges of engineering improved products that fit the user; and provides information for potential answers to these challenges. Most of this information addresses ships and ship systems, but it is relevant to virtually every procurement and acquisition program.

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Discussion

Design and Operational Considerations

DoD and Navy strategic planning requires optimally effective use of military and support personnel. In many cases, manning levels affect critical performance and design Flight deck crew pushes back F/A-18 Hornetcharacteristics for new ship systems. Optimal use of human resources requires systems and equipment that fit the user, provide for maximal productivity, and minimize the potential for injuries and errors. It is essential that Human Factors Engineering/Ergonomics be used to design systems and equipment that are matched to the abilities, dimensions, and limitations of the people who will operate and maintain them.

The challenge to incorporating HFE/Ergonomics into the acquisition process is to meet shipboard and other system survivability requirements while designing systems that eliminate ergonomics or workplace risk factors and decrease error potential. Incorporating HFE/Ergonomics into the design of shipboard spaces must be accomplished within the constraints of schedule and cost while meeting increasingly stringent performance criteria. Additionally, life cycle, or total ownership, costs must also be evaluated. Life cycle costs are the total direct and indirect costs associated with development, design, procurement, operation, maintenance and ultimate disposal of a (weapon) system. Indirect costs include the supporting infrastructure for the system such as maintenance depots, basing, training and personnel support.

The acquisition program manager has the difficult task of developing, testing and fielding systems that perform safely and efficiently for up to 50 years. The human-related issues that impact safety and performance as well as immediate and life-cycle costs must be identified.

HFE/Ergonomics are directly linked to resolving poor designs that lead to work-related musculoskeletal disorders, or WMSDs, one of the fastest growing categories of occupational injuries in the Armed Forces. WMSDs are a broad class of injuries and medical conditions involving cumulative damage to nerves, bones, tendons, ligaments or muscle tissue. Many WMSDs can cause permanent damage and disability if work conditions are not improved. For example, tasks that require maintaining awkward and/or static positions, using repetitive motions, exerting high forces, compression or vibration exposure, and lifting and carrying when present for sufficient duration, frequency, magnitude, or in combination may cause WMSDs. Poorly designed systems, tools, equipment, and workstations can also contribute to the problem, forcing workers to assume unnatural working postures or exert undue force on muscles used for tasks.

Many tasks and associated maintenance operations aboard Navy ships have risk factors associated with the development of WMSDs. Some of these include lifting and Mechanics perform maintenance on aircraft external fuel tank in shipboard hangar baycarrying heavy items, standing for long periods on hard surfaces, working in cramped spaces, and performing numerous repair and maintenance tasks that require awkward postures and repetitive motions.

Other significant human factors-related problems being studied and resolved aboard Navy ships are controls and displays that are difficult to interpret during emergency situations, poor lighting, environmental conditions such as cold, heat (see Heat Stress section of these web pages), noise (see Noise section), disrupted wake/sleep cycles, mental (information) overload, stress, and physical fatigue. Workers who are uncomfortable, fatigued, or in pain are not maximally productive. Uncomfortable workers may subvert built-in safety mechanisms they feel hinder them from performing their jobs quickly and easily. Additionally, pain and fatigue may cause loss of concentration and contribute to errors. All of the above factors may be linked to catastrophic events such as aircraft crashes, power plant failures, and ship collisions.

 

Some Common Shipboard Human Factors Engineering/Ergonomics Design Challenges

Materials Handling - Loading, offloading, and moving materials between workspaces or decks create major HFE/Ergonomic risk factors onboard Navy ships. Because of restrictions on where materials can be stored, storerooms cannot always be located in close proximity to conveyor belts or elevators. Frequently, crewmembers manually carry heavy or bulky materials to and from storerooms or from deck to deck. This may also involve carrying loads up shipboard ladders, both a safety and an ergonomics hazard. Reaching, bending, stretching, and heavy lifting to grasp and carry materials can be HFE/Ergonomic risk factors that may lead to development of WMSDs involving the back, shoulders, legs, knees, and arms.

•  The traditional method of cable pulling onboard Navy ships involves manually lifting and hauling the cable through overhead steel hangers. Installation or removal of the heavy cable involves between 30 and 70 people working for two to three days. Not only is this method costly and labor intensive, but it also has the potential for workers to sustain muscle and back strain injuries.

Working in cramped quarters can cause back, neck, and wrist pain.Workstation Design - There is a tremendous range of work activity and maintenance performed on Navy ships. Due to severe space limitations, shipboard workspaces and workstations are often limited in size, forcing personnel to work in awkward postures and cramped positions. For example, poorly designed administrative workstations can result in shipboard personnel assuming awkward positions while using computers or doing paperwork.

Work tables, counters, and equipment may be positioned so that they are too high or too low for worker comfort, involving twisting, bending or extended reaching to accomplish tasks. Equipment may not be compatible with the variety of heights, reaches, and strengths of today's modern ship populations, both male and female.

Many watches and work shifts onboard Navy ships require prolonged standing. Controls that are too dim, too bright, or hard to understand can result in human error.Crewmembers who stand on hard surfaces for up to six hours during their watches or work shifts may experience pain and stiffness in muscles and joints as well as blood pooling and circulation issues.
  

Controls/Displays and Control Interface - Dimly lit or glaringly bright displays and numerous colors on control panels can contribute to eye strain, headaches, poor concentration, and confusion resulting in human error. Insufficient lighting or glare can cause operators to contort their bodies to better view displays which can lead to discomfort and fatigue. Operators who are forced to stretch in awkward positions to reach controls placed too high or to hunch over controls that are too low are at risk for WMSDs of the back, neck, and shoulders.

Extended reaches, strain, and awkward postures can lead to WMSDs.Controls that are awkwardly placed or whose operations are hard to understand lead to wasted time, increased physical effort, and operator error. Poor control interface may cause operators to override or subvert system safety elements.

Maintenance - Equipment and spaces designed without the maintainer in mind can force workers to assume awkward postures, use repetitive motions, exert excessive force, and be exposed to long periods of hand/arm or whole body vibrations while performing maintenance.

Some valves onboard Navy ships are 12 feet above the deck. Stretching to reach and turning these valves can be difficult and result in excessive strain on arm and back muscles. Constant strain can lead to the development of painful and disabling WMSDs and worker fatigue, resulting in decreased productivity and lack of concentration.

Prolonged use of vibrating hand tools presents risk of HAVS. Electrical and pneumatic hand tools are used for grinding and scraping in preparation for painting and other maintenance or repair tasks. Prolonged use of some types of vibrating hand tools (especially in awkward postures) are associated with hand-arm discomfort and potential loss of functional abilities known as Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) (see Acquisition Safety website section on Vibration).

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Recommendations

Improved Workstation Design - Shipboard workspaces and workstations should be designed to fit function and limited Workspaces must be designed for a variety of body types.space through the application of HFE design principles. Work tables, counters, and equipment need to be designed and positioned so that they are not too high or too low for worker comfort. Working heights should be designed relative to the working height of the hands while avoiding sharp contact points. The work space must be compatible with the variety of heights, reaches, and strengths represented by crewmembers aboard Navy ships. Guidance can be found in DoD Design Criteria Standard - Human Engineering, MIL-STD-1472G and ASTM F1166-95 (Re-approved 2000) Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment and Facilities.

Adequate Lighting - Working in an environment with the correct lighting increases concentration while decreasing fatigue, tension, and the potential for making errors. Designers need to ensure that area lighting is suitable for the tasks that will be performed. Precision work requires high levels of well-balanced lighting. Computer work requires a lower level of illumination, but one that is relatively free from glare. Controls and displays require appropriate illumination to ensure rapid and accurate communication of information. Detailed guidelines for illumination of work spaces and design of signs, controls, and displays are provided in ASTM F1166 and ABS Guidance notes for the Application of Ergonomics to Marine Systems (see Resources section)

User Friendly Controls and Control Interfaces - User-friendly controls, displays, and warning signals are essential to provide for rapid and accurate communication of information. Design in accordance with ergonomics and human factors standards for User-friendly touch screen allows rapid communication and reduces fatigue.the users is essential to reduce the potential for fatigue, which is a major contributor to error.

Alternative automated controls should be considered. A high fraction of displays on fixed machinery monitor parameters such as pressure and temperature that are easily measured by stable sensors which can be linked to a central control area. This minimizes the need to spend time walking through shipboard areas such as engineering spaces and allows improved integration of information through its central location. Additionally, it improves productivity by allowing Sailors to focus on inspection parameters that demand visual assessment and improve maintenance by providing better diagnostic information.

Surfaces with Anti-fatigue Properties - Surfaces with anti-fatigue properties are needed for crewmembers who stand for up to six hours during their watches or who work shifts to protect them from pain and stiffness in muscles and joints. Sit/stand stools or foot rails can also be used to reduce fatigue and discomfort.

Reduced-vibration hand tools and vibration dampening gloves eliminate HAVS.Efficient/Reduced Maintenance - Maintenance procedures need to be taken into account during the space and equipment design process. Ship spaces and systems that require minimal maintenance and are designed with the operators' and maintainers' physical needs in mind will reduce Human Factors Engineering/ Ergonomics risk factors and resulting WMSD's.

•  Where improved (optimal) position for valves and other controls is difficult to engineer, electrically operated switching devices should be considered.
•  Timely maintenance, matching the tool to the task, supplying reduced-vibration hand tools such as jitterbug sanders and pneumatic grinders and wearing vibration dampening gloves greatly reduce the potential of Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome.

Minimize Lifting/Carrying - Designers need to meet the challenge of moving materials on, off, and within Navy ships in such a way as to minimize the amount of lifting and carrying by shipboard personnel. This issue will be increasingly important as Pier side conveyer helps transport supplies and cargo.ships are designed for operation with fewer Sailors. Simple configuration changes and supporting equipment can often reduce the difficulty of moving equipment. Many shipboard inclined ladders (stairs) are equipped with removable "slides" that allow boxes and other relatively light objects to be moved readily down the ladder without need for manual movement and carrying of each piece.

Padeyes or lifting points are often installed above ladders to allow sailors to rig a simple pulley. Padeyes installed for shipyard work may be removed at the completion of a project. Simply leaving these devices in place and arranging for period load testing can greatly simplify movement of certain equipment.

In an effort to meet the lifting challenge onboard ship, an ergonomics study team assembled by the Electrical Group at Norfolk Naval Shipyard (NNSY) investigated Mechanically assisted cable pulling process reduces risk of injury.ways to improve cable pulling methods onboard Navy ships. The study team engineered a mechanically assisted cable pulling process that reduces the potential for injury to personnel and requires less time and effort. Operation of the new system requires only 7 to 12 workers instead of 30 to 70 using the old method. This also represents a decrease in time required from 35 man-days to 14 man-days. Initial tests aboard USS SAIPAN and USS NASSAU indicate a potential for reducing cable pulling time and costs by as much as 50% with no personnel injuries. [See Success Story Improved Ergonomic Cable Pulling Method]

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Conclusion

Designers of shipboard spaces and workstations need to take Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics into account, which considers the physical and psychological capabilities and limitations of the crewmembers working or performing maintenance in those spaces. Incorporation of HFE/Ergonomics into system requirements, design development, and maintenance is not only required by DoD and Navy policy, it is an effective risk management tool that supports performance, maintainability and controls life cycle cost and the risk of injury and errors.

Tasks, workstations, equipment, and tools that are matched to the task and user help to reduce the risk of developing WMSDs by making it easier for the worker to avoid workplace risk factors. By incorporating Human Factors Engineering/Ergonomics at the earliest phases of planning and design in the acquisition process, the frequency and severity of WMSDs in Navy workplaces can be reduced or eliminated.

Recognizing that consideration of HFE/Ergonomics is an essential part of the acquisition process for Navy ships and ship systems contributes to the safety and health of Navy shipboard personnel. Ship spaces and systems that require minimal maintenance and are designed with the operators' and maintainers' physical needs in mind ensure mission readiness, enhance efficient operation, and increase immediate cost savings while reducing life-cycle and total ownership costs.

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Resources/Best Practices

•  DoD/Navy/ Guidelines/Requirements
•  Design Criteria
•  Standards
•  Other Websites & Training Dealing with Ergonomics/HSI
•  Additional References and Consensus Standards

Note: Military Standards and Handbooks can be obtained through the Department of Defense Single Stock Point (DODSSP) for Military Specifications, Standards and Related Publications http://dodssp.daps.dla.mil/ or the Acquisition Streamlining and Standardization Information System (ASSIST) http://assist.daps.dla.mil/online/start/ (password required).

The Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards (DODISS) contain the complete list of standardization documents in the DODSSP collection. The information contained in this reference publication is available online to all ASSIST subscribers, on CD-ROM for single issue, or in paper format from the Superintendent of Documents at the GPO Online Bookstore: http://bookstore.gpo.gov/collections/subscriptions/index.jsp.

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DoD/Navy Guidelines/Requirements

Defense Acquisition Guidebook  
Provides members of the acquisition community and industry partners with an interactive, on-line reference to policy and discretionary best practice (see Chapter 6 - Human Systems Integration).

Department of Defense Instruction (DODI) 5000.02  
"Operation of the Defense Acquisition System," 12/08/2008, requires the Project Manager to ensure HFE is addressed (see Section E7.1.1, Human Factors Engineering).

Defense Technical Information Center  
DTIC - provides human factors and ergonomics information analysis services to support research, design, and development of space, air, surface, and subsurface crew systems. Provides a variety of technical services that include responding to basic technical inquiries as well as addressing large-scale analytical tasks. It is a gateway to worldwide sources of behavioral, biomedical, and engineering information for engineers, designers, and human factors specialists.

Human Systems Integration  
A U.S. Navy website listing useful links related to the topic of Human Systems Integration

Human Systems Integration Success Stories
Success stories provided by Naval Sea Systems Command, Integrated Warfare Systems Engineering

OPNAV Instruction 5100.23G  
Navy Safety & Occupational Health (SOH) Program Manual - Chapter 23, Ergonomics Program, provides guidance on the development and implementation of an ergonomics program including hazard control methods.

SECNAVINST 5000.2E  
Implementation and Operation of the Defense Acquisition System and the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System, dated 16 October 2008, calls for HFE principals to be applied throughout the acquisition process.

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Design Criteria

US Navy Amphibious Ship HFE/Safety Ship Design Lessons Learned Report (through App. F)
    Appendices G-I
    Appendices J-N
    Appendices O-R
    Appendix S
    Appendices T-U
    Appendix V
    Appendix W
    Appendix X

ASTM F1166-07  
American Society for Testing and Materials (Re-approved 2000) Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment and Facilities.

Directory of Design Support Methods, Defense Technical Information Center 
Annotated directory of human systems integration (HSI) design support tools and techniques that have been developed by the DoD, NASA, FAA, NATO countries, academia, and private industry.

Ergonomic Design of Navigation Bridges 
American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) has developed recommended guidelines for design of shipboard bridges.

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Human Factors Workbench 
A compilation of human factors practices and principles integral to the procurement, design, development, and testing of FAA systems, facilities, and equipment primarily focused on FAA ground systems and equipment such as those that are managed and maintained by Airway Facilities, but has general applicability also.

FAA HF-STD-001 Human Factors Design Standard 
This human factors design standard provides a single easy-to-use source of human factors design criteria to meet the needs of the FAA mission and systems. (Zipped file)

Guidance Notes for the Application of Ergonomics to Marine Systems 
American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) -. Additional ABS Guidance Notes on ergonomics are available via their website by searching under "ergonomics" or "human factors engineering") http://www.eagle.org/.

Human Engineering and Ergonomic Risk Analysis Process (HEERAP) 
A methodology that will facilitate the identification, analysis, and mitigation of design induced human injury risk was developed as a Defense Safety Oversight Council (DSOC) project. The product of that development, the Human Engineering and Ergonomics Risk Analysis Process (HEERAP), is presented along with a summary of how it was developed. The process offers the potential to identify, describe safety and human engineering risk factors, review approaches to their mitigation and document associated savings.
    Appendix A – HEERAP Process
    Appendix B – Human Injury Risk Matrix HEERAP
    Appendix C - Final Report

High Speed Craft Human Factors Engineering Design Guide 
Designed for Naval Architects, Academia, Procurement Agencies, Regulatory Bodies, and Human Factors Subject Matter Experts (see page 3). Source: High Speed Craft Human Factors & Craft Design web forum http://www.highspeedcraft.org/index.php

MIL-HDBK 759C 
DoD “Handbook for Human Engineering Design Guidelines” provides human engineering design guidelines and reference data (not a requirements document) for design of military systems, equipment, and facilities.

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Standards

Human Factors Standards and Handbooks 
Listing of HFE/Ergo related Standards and Handbooks with identifying numbers and brief descriptions.

Index of Government Standards on Human Engineering Design Criteria, Processes, and Procedures 
The focus of this Index is U.S. government standards in a list of documents clearly identified as standards by numbered identifiers and some standards-like documents.

Index of Non-Government Standards on Human Engineering Design Criteria and Program Requirements/Guidelines 
Includes standards, specifications, recommended practices, codes, guides, handbooks, etc.

MIL-STD-1472G
DoD Design Criteria Standard - Human Engineering (pdf 1.72 MB) - establishes general human engineering criteria, principles, and practices for design and development of military systems, equipment and facilities. Its purpose is to present these criteria, principles and practices so as to: a) achieve required performance by operator, control, and maintenance personnel, b) minimize skill and personnel requirements, and training time, c) achieve required reliability of personnel-equipment combinations, and d) foster design standardization within and among systems.

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Other Websites & Training Dealing with Ergonomics/HSI

Analysis Tools for Ergonomists University of South Florida 
Developed by Thomas E. Bernard of University of South Florida’s College of Public Health. The tools are organized into four categories: Basic, Qualitative, Semi-Quantitative and Quantitative.

Army Ergonomics Program 
Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine Ergonomics Program site provides information on assessments, training, program development, acquisition, publications, and policy relating to ergonomics.

Department of Defense (DoD) Ergonomics Working Group 
Site provides practical, user-friendly information on program development; organizational culture and change; metrics; program implementation and management; best practices; self assessments; cost benefit and return on investments; marketing and communication; ergonomic assessment tools, products, and intranet programs; workstation design; and research initiatives.

DoD Human Factors Engineering Technical Advisory Group (HFE TAG) 
Composed of technical representatives from the DoD, National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA), and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) with research and development responsibility in human factors and related disciplines.
    Technical Information Exchange  The primary product of the HFE TAG has been its role in and coordination of HFE research across DoD laboratories and other government agencies.  Sub-Tags 

Human Factors Research and Engineering Group 
Federal Aviation Administration provides scientific and technical support for the civil aviation human factors research program and for human factors applications in acquisition, certification, regulation, and standards.

Human Engineering and Ergonomics Risk Analysis Process, Improved Capability for Reducing Human Injury Risks 
Presentation quantifying Ergonomic/Human Systems Integration risk and costs to support system safety analysis.

Inventory of Human Factors Tools and Methods  
Aims to provide a 'catalogue' for browsing and some starting points for where to get more information on how to. Focus of inventory to includes product design and usability tools, as well as the beginnings of tools for senior managers making strategic decisions for their company. Inventory is also moving into more traditional 'engineering' design tools. This is done with a deliberate intent to blur the lines between 'ergonomic' tools and 'regular' tools, so as to support integration of human factors as a natural part of the design process. This inventory also includes listings of commercially available software for ergonomics analysis. Software has not been examined but is presented as possible leads for the reader to investigate to improve ergonomics in own design processes. Submission of tools or methods that could be added to this inventory is welcome.

MANPRINT 
Department of the Army system provides a systematic approach for review of safety, health and operational issues associated with design. This methodology may be used for Navy systems. An eight-day course in use of this system is available. Ranges of ergonomics courses with design focus are available through commercial and university sources. Courses (i.e., A-493-0085) are also available through the Naval Safety and Environmental Training Center.

National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders 
Publications and other resources related to Ergonomics and WMSDs.

NIOSH Reports Ergonomic Solutions in Shipyards 
These reports include problem summaries and a number of technical solutions to ergonomics problems including cost-effective "easy fixes."

Naval Facilities Engineering Command Safety and Health Ergonomics Pages  
Navy's clearinghouse for ergonomic related issues. The site contains resource for technical support to Navy Shore activities. Includes useful work site assessment tools, training modules, frequently asked questions in ergonomics, contacts to request additional information, and information on the Navy Mishap Prevention Program.

Navy Modeling and Simulation Management Office (NAVMSMO) 
Web-enabled single point of public access to the Navy's Modeling & Simulation Information Service (NMSIS). The NMSIS collects, maintains, and distributes information about Navy Modeling and Simulation (M&S) for the use of Program Managers, engineers, M&S builders, and others throughout the M&S community.

Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) eTools for Ergonomics 
OSHA has a four-pronged comprehensive approach to ergonomics designed to quickly and effectively address workplace musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs).

    Additional OSHA eTools relevant to shipboard and shipyard work include:
    Shipyard Employment: Ship Repair 
    Construction 
    Baggage Handling  
    Beverage Delivery 

University of Michigan Center for Ergonomics
Dedicated to a better understanding of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and principles of human-centered technologies and man-machine interaction. This work has provided a foundation for: models of human biomechanics; models and methods to analyze and support perceptual and cognitive work; and methods to analyze and design jobs for control of musculoskeletal disorders.

American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) - Ergonomic Assessment Toolkit
To provide basic general tool that maybe used by the Health and safety professional to determine job safety as it pertains to the repetitive motion, force exertion, rest/recovery period and work demands place on the hand region during the act of hand manipulation.

The Cost of Office Ergonomics 
DoD Working Group News, Issue 107, August 2010 - Fleet Readiness Center East funding of ergonomic revitalization with photographs provided of some of their successful solutions.

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Additional References and Consensus Standards

Aerospace Glossary for Human Factors Engineers
ANSI/SAE ARP 4107

American National Standard Mechanical vibration and shock - Evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration
ANSI S2.72/Part 1-2002 (R 2007) / ISO 2631-1:1997

Earth-Moving Equipment, Human Physical Dimensions of Operators and Minimum Operator Space Envelope
ISO 3411: 2007

Electrostatic Discharge Sensitivity Testing - Human Body Model (HBM)
ANSI/ESD STM5.1-2007

Guide for the Application of Human Factors Engineering to Systems, Equipment, and Facilities of Nuclear Power Generating Stations
ANSI/IEEE 1023-2004

Guide to Human Performance Measurements
ANSI/AIAA G-035-1992

Human Engineering Considerations in the Application of Color to Electronic Aircraft Displays
ANSI/SAE ARP 4032

Human Factors Engineering of Computer Workstations
ANSI/HFES 100-2007

Human Factors Engineering Guidelines and Preferred Practices for the Design of Medical Devices (Second Edition)
Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) HE-48, 1993

Human Interface Criteria for Collision Avoidance Systems in Transport Aircraft (1988)
SAE ARP 4153

Human Interface Design Methodology for Integrated Display Symbology (1997)
SAE ARP 4155

Human Mechanical Response Characteristics (March 1985)
SAE J1460

Human Physical Dimensions, Recommended Practice (2003)
SAE J833

Human Tolerance to Impact Conditions as Related to Motor Vehicle Design (2003)
SAE J885

Industrial Robots and Robot Systems - Reliability Acceptance Testing – Guidelines
ANSI/R15.05-3-1992

Mechanical vibration -- Measurement and evaluation of human exposure to hand-transmitted vibration -- Part 1: General requirements, International Organization for Standardization
ISO 5349-1:2001

Recommended Practice for Software Reliability
ANSI/AIAA R-013-1992

Test and Reliability Guidelines (1986)
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) EP456

Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy
ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004

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How to Contribute

We need input from the Defense Acquisition community to address each of the ten Acquisition Safety challenges that are the subject of this website. Grow with us as we share information on how to meet the above challenges through the Defense Acquisition Process. Through the exchange of ideas, information resources, and improvements in methodology and design, these challenges can and will be met.

To submit general information or information on Best Practices, or to submit a success story, please send an email to safe-webmaster@navy.mil with the subject line "Acquisition Safety."

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Contact Info:  703-695-4705 | POC: M_NRFK_SAFE_CODE08_UD@navy.mil
Last Revision: 14 Aug 2014


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